In recent years, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technologies have received increasing attention in the field of biomedical applications. The aim of this article is to review the currently available literature to provide an overview of the scientific principles of CAP application, its features, functions, and its applications in systemic and oral diseases, with a specific focus on its potential in implantology. In this narrative review, PubMed, Medline, and Scopus databases were searched using key words like “cold atmospheric plasma”, “argon plasma”, “helium plasma”, “air plasma”, “dental implants”, “implantology”, “peri-implantitis”, “decontamination”. In vitro studies demonstrated CAP’s potential to enhance surface colonization and osteoblast activity and to accelerate mineralization, as well as to determine a clean surface with cell growth comparable to the sterile control on both titanium and zirconia surfaces. The effect of CAP on biofilm removal was revealed in comparative studies to the currently available decontamination modalities (laser, air abrasion, and chlorhexidine). The combination of mechanical treatments and CAP resulted in synergistic antimicrobial effects and surface improvement, indicating that it may play a central role in surface “rejuvenation” and offer a novel approach for the treatment of peri-implantitis. It is noteworthy that the CAP conditioning of implant surfaces leads to an improvement in osseointegration in in vivo animal studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of the literature providing a summary of the current state of the art of this emerging field in implantology and it could represent a point of reference for basic researchers and clinicians interested in approaching and testing new technologies.