Cold atmospheric plasma use in clinical studies is mainly limited to the treatment of chronic wounds, but its application in a wide range of medical fields is now the goal of many analyses. It is therefore likely that its application spectrum will be expanded in the future. Cold atmospheric plasma has been shown to reduce microbial load without any known significant negative effects on healthy tissues, and this should enhance its possible application to any microbial infection site. It has also been shown to have anti-tumour effects. In addition, it acts proliferatively on stem cells and other cultivated cells, and the highly increased nitric oxide levels have a very important effect on this proliferation. Cold atmospheric plasma use may also have a beneficial effect on immunotherapy in cancer patients. Finally, it is possible that the use of plasma devices will not remain limited to surface structures, because current endeavours to develop sufficiently miniature microplasma devices could very likely lead to its application in subcutaneous and internal structures. This study summarises the available literature on cold plasma action mechanisms and analyses of its current in vivo and in vitro use, primarily in the fields of regenerative and dental medicine and oncology.